The occurrence of Diclofenac in the particulate phase of wastewaters

A. E. B. Kermia, D. Djebbar-Fouial


Abstract:Diclofenac is one of the most consumed drugs in the world and in Algeria. It is classified in the therapeutic group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The presence of pharmaceuticals in the environment is known in the recent decades as "emerging contaminants", the most part of these substances can enter in the aquatic systems from the excretion of these molecules after human consumption or veterinary use. Our work focuses on the presence of these molecules in the wastewater’s particulate phase of two wastewaters treatment plants (WWTPs) in Algiers. The particulate phase was isolated by filtration of wastewater on glass fibre filters (GFF) with diameter pores of 1.6 and 0.7 µm, and then the filters were extracted using an ultrasound bath followed by a centrifugation step. The filtrate was diluted in Ultra-pure water and extracted with solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. The samples were analysed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after a derivatization step with N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA) to reduce the polarity of our molecule and increase its volatility, which make the analysis more suitable.

Full Text:



Djebbar-Fouial, D.; Badjah-Hadj-Ahmed, A.Y.; Budzinski, H. Determination of organochlorine compounds in coastal marine sediments from the southern west of the Mediterranean Sea. International Journal of Environmental Science & Technology 7 (2010) 271-280.

Djebbar-Fouial, D.; Djebbar, R.; Badjah-Hadj-Ahmed, A.Y.; Budzinski, H. Level of polychlorinated biphenyls in marine environment of Algiers Bay, Algeria. Analytical Letters 44 (2011) 2438-2456.

Togola, A.; Budzinski, H. Multi-residue analysis of pharmaceutical compounds in aqueous samples. Journal of Chromatography A1177 (2008) 150-158.

Patrolecco, L.; Ademollo, N.; Grenni, P.; Tolomei, A.; Barra Caracciolo, A.; Capri, S. Simultaneous determination of human pharmaceuticals in water samples by solid phase extraction and HPLC with UV-fluorescence detection. Microchemical Journal 107 (2013) 165-171.

Vergeynst, L.; Haeck, A.; De Wispelaere, P.; Van Langenhove, H.; Demeestere, K. Multi-residue analysis of pharmaceuticals in wastewater by liquid chromatography-magnetic sector mass spectrometry: method quality assessment and application in a Belgian case study. Chemosphere 119 (Suppl) (2015) S2-S8.

Gracia-Lor, E.; Martinez, M.; Sancho, J.V.; Penuela, G.; Hernandez, F. Multi-class determination of personal care products and pharmaceuticals in environmental and wastewater samples by ultra-high performance liquid-chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Talanta 99 (2012) 1011-1023.

Guitart, C.; Readman, J.W. Critical evaluation of the determination of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, phenolic endocrine disrupters and faecal steroids by GC/MS and PTV-GC/MS in environmental waters. Analyticachimicaacta 658 (2010) 32-40.

Idder, S.; Ley, L.; Mazellier, P.; Budzinski, H. Quantitative on-line preconcentration-liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of pharmaceutical compounds in water. Analyticachimicaacta805 (2013) 107-115.

Carmona, E.; Andreu, V.; Pico, Y. Occurrence of acidic pharmaceuticals and personal care products in Turia River Basin: from waste to drinking water. The Science of the total environment 484(2014) 53-63.

Loraine, G.A.; Pettigrove, M.E. Seasonal Variations in Concentrations of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in Drinking Water and Reclaimed Wastewater in Southern California. Environmental Science & Technology 40 (2006) 687-695.

Lin, W.C.; Chen, H.C.; Ding, W.H. Determination of pharmaceutical residues in waters by solid-phase extraction and large-volume on-line derivatization with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A 1065 (2005) 279-285.

Tewari, S.; Jindal, R.; Kho, Y.L.; Eo, S.; Choi, K. Major pharmaceutical residues in wastewater treatment plants and receiving waters in Bangkok, Thailand, and associated ecological risks. Chemosphere 91 (2013) 697-704.

Pavlović, D.M.; Babić, S.; Horvat, A.J.M.; Kaštelan-Macan, M. Sample preparation in analysis of pharmaceuticals. TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry 26 (2007) 1062-1075.

Azzouz, A.; Souhail, B.; Ballesteros, E. Continuous solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination of pharmaceuticals and hormones in water samples. Journal of chromatography A 1217 (2010) 2956-2963.

Hu, R.; Yang, Z.; Zhang, L. Trace analysis of acidic pharmaceutical residues in waters with isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry via methylation derivatization. Talanta85 (2011) 1751-1759.〈=fr

Dinh, Q.T.; Alliot, F.; Moreau-Guigon, E.; Eurin, J.; Chevreuil, M.; Labadie, P. Measurement of trace levels of antibiotics in river water using on-line enrichment and triple-quadrupole LC-MS/MS. Talanta85 (2011) 1238-1245.

Dinh, Q.T. Transferts et comportements d'antibiotiques à l'échelle du bassin versant élémentaire. Doctorat thesis, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, 29 June 2012.

Palmer, P.M.; Wilson, L.R.; O'Keefe, P.; Sheridan, R.; King, T.; Chen, C.Y. Sources of pharmaceutical pollution in the New York City Watershed. Science of The Total Environment 394 (2008) 90-102.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Copyright UMMB © 2020 University M'hamed Bougara - Boumerdes. Independance AV., Boumerdes, 35000 Algeria, Tel/Fax: +213 24 91 14 98/ +213 2491-29-51