Evaluation of biological activities of Thyme extracts and their use as a natural alternative to antibiotics for the reduction of pharmaceutical waste

N. Mebarki, M. Nabiev, H. Ziane, H. Chader, F. Fazouane

Abstract


Abstract: Excessive and improper use of chemical antibiotics is dangerous to human health and animals and causes an unhealthy environment. Hence, medicinal plants are expected to be the future alternative source of new antimicrobial products. The present study aims to determine the chemical composition of Thymus fontanesii Boiss. & Reut. essential oil (EO) then to  isolate and characterise its main constituent, thymol, and to evaluate their antibacterial and antioxidant activities. The oil was obtained by hydro-distillation from the aerial parts of T. fontanesii at yield of 3.4±0.2% and 06 main compounds were identified using GC/MS technique representing more than 99% of the oil composition. The major constituents were thymol (77.72%) and carvacrol (13.27%). The antimicrobial activity of our extracts was investigated in comparison with four synthetic antibiotics, using the disc diffusion and broth macro-dilution methods against 13 pathogenic bacteria. The antimicrobial evaluation showed that EO and thymol isolate exhibited high antibacterial activity against all the strains tested compared with the synthetic antibiotics, they were capable of inhibiting the growth of bacterial organisms tested with inhibition zones in the range of  10–58.53 mm. The EO was the most active with MIC and MBC values of (0.035 mg/mL to 0.565 mg/mL). The antioxidant activity of our extracts was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method. The antioxidant activity revealed that the EO and thymol isolate demonstrated a very important anti-radical activity compared to the standards (ascorbic acid and BHT). T. fontanesii essential oil showed the strongest (p < 0.05) radical scavenging effect, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 15.85 ± 0.23µg/mL. The results showed that the essential oil of T. fontanesii and thymol, its major compound, are an excellent alternative to synthetic antibiotics. They are of great interest because of their availability, non-toxicity and their friendship with the environment, and therefore can be useful for the food and pharmaceutical industries.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Panditi, V.R.; Batchu, S.R.; Gardinali, P.R. Online solid-phase extraction–liquid chromatography–electrospray–tandem mass spectrometry determination of multiple classes of antibiotics in environmental and treated waters. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 405 (2013) 5953-5964.

Roose-Amsaleg, C.; Laverman, A.M. Do antibiotics have environmental side-effects? Impact of synthetic antibiotics on biogeochemical processes. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 23 (2015) 4000-4012.

Carvalho, I.T.; Santos, L. Antibiotics in the aquatic environments: A review of the European scenario. Environment International 94 (2016) 736-757.

Deng, W.; Li, N.; Zheng, H.; Lin, H. Occurrence and risk assessment of antibiotics in river water in Hong Kong. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 125 (2016) 121-127.

Harrabi, M.; Varela Della Giustina, S.; Aloulou, F.; Rodriguez-Mozaz, S.; Barceló, D.; Elleuch, B. Analysis of multiclass antibiotic residues in urban wastewater in Tunisia. Environmental Nanotechnology, Monitoring & Management 10 (2018) 163-170.

Liu, X.; Lu, S.; Guo, W.; Xi, B.; Wang, W. Antibiotics in the aquatic environments: A review of lakes, China. Science of The Total Environment 627 (2018) 1195-1208.

Chen, Y.; Zhou, J.L.; Cheng, L.; Zheng, Y.Y.; Xu, J. Sediment and salinity effects on the bioaccumulation of sulfamethoxazole in zebrafish ( Danio rerio ). Chemosphere 180 (2017) 467-475.

Asdadi, A.; Hamdouch, A.; Oukacha, A.; Moutaj, R.; Gharby, S.; Harhar, H.; El Hadek, M.; Chebli, B.; Idrissi Hassani, L.M. Study on chemical analysis, antioxidant and in vitro antifungal activities of essential oil from wild Vitex agnus-castus L. seeds growing in area of Argan Tree of Morocco against clinical strains of Candida responsible for nosocomial infections. Journal de Mycologie Médicale 25 (2015) e118-e127.

Ballester-Costa, C.; Sendra, E.; Fernández-López, J.; Pérez-Álvarez, J.A.; Viuda-Martos, M. Chemical composition and in vitro antibacterial properties of essential oils of four Thymus species from organic growth. Industrial Crops and Products 50 (2013) 304-311.

Benchabane, O.; Hazzit, M.; Mouhouche, F.; Baaliouamer, A. Influence of Extraction Duration on the Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Essential Oil of Thymus pallescens de Noé. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering 40 (2015) 1855-1865.

Ghannadi, A.; Sajjadi, S.E.; Kabouche, A.; Kabouche, Z. Thymus fontanesii Boiss. & Reut. Ð A Potential Source of Thymol-Rich Essential Oil in North Africa. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung 59 (2004) 187-189.

Kabouche, Z.; Boutaghane, N.; Laggoune, S.; Kabouche, A.; Aitkaki, Z.; Benlabed, K. Comparative antibacterial activity of five Lamiaceae essential oils from Algeria. International Journal of Aromatherapy 15 (2005) 129-133.

Mohammed, M.J.; Al-Bayati, F.A. Isolation and identification of antibacterial compounds from Thymus kotschyanus aerial parts and Dianthus caryophyllus flower buds. Phytomedicine 16 (2009) 632-637.

Adams, R.P. Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy, Carol Stream: Allured Publishing Corporation. IL, USA. In; 2007.

Kohiyama, C.Y.; Yamamoto Ribeiro, M.M.; Mossini, S.A.G.; Bando, E.; Bomfim, N.d.S.; Nerilo, S.B.; Rocha, G.H.O.; Grespan, R.; Mikcha, J.M.G.; Machinski, M. Antifungal properties and inhibitory effects upon aflatoxin production of Thymus vulgaris L. by Aspergillus flavus Link. Food Chemistry 173 (2015) 1006-1010.

El Ouariachi, E.; Hamdani, I.; Bouyanzer, A.; Hammouti, B.; Majidi, L.; Costa, J.; Paolini, J.; Chetouani, A. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oils of Thymus broussonetii Boiss. and Thymus algeriensis Boiss. from Morocco. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease 4 (2014) 281-286.

Sarikurkcu, C.; Sabih Ozer, M.; Eskici, M.; Tepe, B.; Can, Ş.; Mete, E. Essential oil composition and antioxidant activity of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis var . longicaulis. Food and Chemical Toxicology 48 (2010) 1801-1805.

Bilenler, T.; Gokbulut, I.; Sislioglu, K.; Karabulut, I. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of thyme essential oil encapsulated in zein particles. Flavour and Fragrance Journal 30 (2015) 392-398.

Safaei-Ghomi, J.; Ebrahimabadi, A.H.; Djafari-Bidgoli, Z.; Batooli, H. GC/MS analysis and in vitro antioxidant activity of essential oil and methanol extracts of Thymus caramanicus Jalas and its main constituent carvacrol. Food Chemistry 115 (2009) 1524-1528.

Haddouchi, F.; Lazouni, H.A.; Meziane, A.a.B., A. Study physicochemical and microbiological of the essential oil of of Thymus fontanesii Boiss & Reut. Afrique Science 05 (2009) 246 - 259.

Mohammedi, Z.; Bachik, S.; Belkaroube, N. Antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic potential of essential oils from an endemic Thymus fontanesii Boiss and Reut. Les Technologies De Laboratoire 5 (2010) 10-15.

Khadir, A.; Bendahou, M.; Benbelaid, F.; Abdoune, M.A.; Abdelouahid,D.E.Pouvoir antimicrobien de Thymus lanceolatus Desf., récolté en Algérie. Phytothérapie 11 (2013) 353-358.

Ferhat, M.; Ghorab, H.; Laggoune, S.; Ghannadi, A.; Sajjadi, S.E.; Touzani, R.; Kabouche, A.a.K., Z Composition and antioxidant activity of the essential oil of Thymus dreatensis from Algeria Chemistry of Natural Compounds 50 (2014) 747-749.

Dob,T.;Dahmane,D.; Benabdelkader, T.; Chelghoum, C. Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Thymus fontanesii. Pharmaceutical Biology 44 (2006) 607-612.

Bekhechi, C.; Bekkara, F.A.; Abdelouahid, D.E.; Tomi, F.; Casanova, J. Composition and Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oil ofThymus fontanesiiBoiss. et Reut. from Algeria. Journal of Essential Oil Research 19 (2007) 594-596.

Matias, E.F.F.; Alves, E.F.; Silva, M.K.N.; Carvalho, V.R.A.; Figueredo, F.G.; Ferreira, J.V.A.; Coutinho, H.D.M.; Silva, J.M.F.L.; Ribeiro-Filho, J.; Costa, J.G.M. Seasonal variation, chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea DC (Boraginaceae) and the sabinene. Industrial Crops and Products 87 (2016) 45-53.

Llorens, L.; Llorens-Molina, J.A.; Agnello, S.; Boira, H. Geographical and environment-related variations of essential oils in isolated populations of Thymus richardii Pers. in the Mediterranean basin. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 56 (2014) 246-254.

Djabou, N.; Lorenzi, V.; Guinoiseau, E.; Andreani, S.; Giuliani, M.-C.; Desjobert, J.-M.; Bolla, J.-M.; Costa, J.; Berti, L.; Luciani, A.; Muselli, A. Phytochemical composition of Corsican Teucrium essential oils and antibacterial activity against foodborne or toxi-infectious pathogens. Food Control 30 (2013) 354-363.

Anžlovar, S.; Baričevič, D.; Avguštin, J.A.; Koce, J.D. Essential Oil of Common Thyme as a Natural Antimicrobial Food Additive. Food Technol. Biotechnol. 52 (2014) 263-268.

Politeo, O.; Skocibusic, M.; Burcul, F.; Maravic, A.; Carev, I.; Ruscic, M.; and Milos, M. Campanula portenschlagiana Roem.et Schult.: Chemical and Antimicrobial Activities. CHEMISTRY & BIODIVERSITY 10 (2013) 1072-1080.

Fadli, M.; Saad, A.; Sayadi, S.; Chevalier, J.; Mezrioui, N.-E.; Pagès, J.-M.; Hassani, L. Antibacterial activity of Thymus maroccanus and Thymus broussonetii essential oils against nosocomial infection – bacteria and their synergistic potential with antibiotics. Phytomedicine 19 (2012) 464-471.

Saei-Dehkordi, S.S.; Khalighi-Sigaroodi, F.; Pirali-Kheirabadi, K.; Saei-Dehkordi, S.S.; Alimardani-Naghani, F.; Fallah, A.A. Chemical Composition, Antioxidative Capacity and Antimicrobial Activity ofZeravschania membranacea(Boiss.) Pimenov Essential Oil. Journal of Food Safety 34 (2014) 87-94.

Ben Hsouna, A.; Trigui, M.; Mansour, R.B.; Jarraya, R.M.; Damak, M.; Jaoua, S. Chemical composition, cytotoxicity effect and antimicrobial activity of Ceratonia siliqua essential oil with preservative effects against Listeria inoculated in minced beef meat. International Journal of Food Microbiology 148 (2011) 66-72.

Hajlaoui, H.; Mighri, H.; Aouni, M.; Gharsallah, N.; Kadri, A. Chemical composition and in vitro evaluation of antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxicity and anti-acetylcholinesterase properties of Tunisian Origanum majorana L. essential oil. Microbial Pathogenesis 95 (2016) 86-94.

Adrar, N.; Oukil, N.; Bedjou, F. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Thymus numidicus and Salvia officinalis essential oils alone or in combination. Industrial Crops and Products 88 (2016) 112-119.

Cutillas, A.-B.; Carrasco, A.; Martinez-Gutierrez, R.; Tomas, V.; Tudela, J. Thyme essential oils from Spain: Aromatic profile ascertained by GC–MS, and their antioxidant, anti-lipoxygenase and antimicrobial activities. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis 26 (2018) 529-544.

El Bouzidi, L.; Jamali, C.A.; Bekkouche, K.; Hassani, L.; Wohlmuth, H.; Leach, D.; Abbad, A. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oils obtained from wild and cultivated Moroccan Thymus species. Industrial Crops and Products 43 (2013) 450-456.

Gavaric, N.; Mozina, S.S;. Kladar, N.; Bozin, B. Chemical Profile, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of Thyme and Oregano Essential Oils, Thymol and Carvacrol and Their Possible Synergism. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants 18 (2015) 1013-1021.

de Carvalho, R.J.; de Souza, G.T.; Honório, V.G.; de Sousa, J.P.; da Conceição, M.L.; Maganani, M.; de Souza, E.L. Comparative inhibitory effects of Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and mesophilic starter co-culture in cheese-mimicking models. Food Microbiology 52 (2015) 59-65.

Džamić, A.M.; Nikolić, B.J.; Giweli, A.A.; Mitić-Ćulafić, D.S.; Soković, M.D.; Ristić, M.S.; Knežević-Vukčević, J.B.; Marin, P.D. LibyanThymus capitatusessential oil: antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and colon pathogen adhesion-inhibition properties. Journal of Applied Microbiology 119 (2015) 389-399.

Mancini, E.; Senatore, F.; Del Monte, D.; De Martino, L.; Grulova, D.; Scognamiglio, M.; Snoussi, M.; De Feo, V. Studies on Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Five Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oils. Molecules 20 (2015) 12016-12028.

Li, J.-e.; Nie, S.-p.; Qiu, Z.-h.; Che, M.-j.; Li, C.; Xie, M.-y. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil from Herba Moslae. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 90 (2010) 1347-1352.

Ballester-Costa, C.; Esther, S.I.; Fernández-López ID, J.; Viuda-Martos, M. Assessment of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Properties on Meat Homogenates of Essential Oils Obtained from Four Thymus Species Achieved from Organic Growth. Foods 6 (2017) 59.

Viuda-Martos, M.; Mohamady, M.A.; Fernández-López, J.; Abd ElRazik, K.A.; Omer, E.A.; Pérez-Alvarez, J.A.; Sendra, E. In vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essentials oils obtained from Egyptian aromatic plants. Food Control 22 (2011) 1715-1722.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Copyright UMMB © 2020 University M'hamed Bougara - Boumerdes. Independance AV., Boumerdes, 35000 Algeria, Tel/Fax: +213 24 91 14 98/ +213 2491-29-51