Evaluation des risques opérationnels liés à l’utilisation de la méthode électrocinétique pour la décontamination des sols pollués par un mélange d’explosifs

Mus. Chohra, Med. Chohra, A. Mezhouda, A. Zeghdaoui, D. Akretche

Abstract


Abstract: The present study aims at exploring the operational risks affecting the process of depollution of a contaminated soil by a mix of explosives contaminants using the Electrokinetic remediation method. 

Based on a hybrid research approach combining experimental and qualitative methods, the study tried to develop an approach to identifying, analyzing and evaluating the operational risks that may affect the remediation process. After the experimental phase, where a sample of 50 kg of contaminated soil by a mix of TNT, Tetryl and RDX substances taken from a military firing range has been decontaminated, a panel of experts and specialists has been interviewed about related risks. The interviews allowed identifying and evaluating different risks considered as critical for the four phases and 19 missions executed during the experimental phase.

 Accordingly, the study confirmed that the advantages and the effectiveness of the Electrokinetic remediation method depend on the preventives measures that should be taken upstream to the process of decontamination in order to reduce operational inherent risks of the method.

Although the proposed approach of risks evaluation could be generalized and applied to other decontamination methods, the proper implementing factors of each method causing different operational risks should be considered.

Résumé: La présente étude traite la question des risques opérationnels potentiels du traitement des sols contaminés par un mélange d’explosifs en utilisant la méthode électrocinétique.

L’étude a tenté de développer une démarche d’identification, d’analyse et d’évaluation des risques opérationnels pouvant affecter l’opération de décontamination en se basant sur une méthodologie de recherche hybride combinant les approches expérimentale et qualitative. Après une phase expérimentale traitant un échantillon de 50 kg des sols pollués par un mélange d’explosifs composé de TNT, de Tetryl et du RDX, pris d’un champ de tir et d’essais d’explosifs militaire. Un panel d’experts et de spécialistes de décontamination des sols a été interviewé, ce qui a permis d’identifier et d’évaluer les risques jugés critiques aux quatre phases et 19 missions du processus de décontamination identifiés durant la phase expérimentale.

L’étude a permis de confirmer que les avantages de la méthode électrocinétique et son efficacité dans la décontamination des sols sont conditionnés par les mesures préventives à prendre en amont pour atténuer les risques opérationnels  inhérents à la méthode.

La démarche d’évaluation des risques opérationnels proposée par cette étude peut être généralisée et appliquée à l’ensemble des méthodes de traitement des sols contaminés, tout en prenant en compte la nature des facteurs engendrant les risques au cours de l’utilisation de chaque méthode.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Craig, H. D.; W. E. Sisk.; M. D. Nelson.; W. H. Dana. Bioremediation of explosives-contaminated soils: A status review. Proceedings of the 10th Annual Conference on Hazardous Waste Research, Kansas State University,Manhattan, NY, USA (1995), 164-179.

Cameselle, C.; Gouveia, S.; Akretche, D.E.; Belhadj, B. Advances in Electrokinetic Remediation for the removal of organic contaminants in soilsin Organic Pollutants - Monitoring, Risk and Treatment, Rashed M. N Eds; Intechopen, (2013).

Pennington, J.C.; Brannon, J.M. Environmental fate of explosives. Thermochim Acta, 384:1 (2002) 163-172.

Juhasz, A.L.; Naidu, R. Explosives: Fate, Dynamics, and Ecological Impact in Terrestrial and Marine Environments. Environ.Contam Toxicol 191 (2007) 163-215.

Kalderis, D.; Juhasz, A.L.; Boopathy, Raj.; Comfort, S. Soils contaminated with explosives: environmental fate and evaluation of state-of-the-art remediation processes (IUPAC technical report).Pure and Applied Chemistry 83: 7 (2011), 1407-1484.

Lewis, T. A.; D. A, Newcombe D. A.; Crawford, R. L. Bioremediation of soils contaminated with explosives. Journal of Environmental Management 70:4 (2004) 291-307.

Pamuku, S.; Wittle, J.K. Electrokinetic removal of selected heavy metals from soil.Environmental Progress, 11:4(1992)241-250.

Acar, Y. B.; Hamed, J.T.; Alshawabkeh A.N. Removal of cadmium (II) from saturated kaolinite by the application of electrical current.Geotechnique,44:2(1994) 239-254.

Reed, E. B.; Carriere, P.C.; Thompson, J.C.; Hatfield, J.H. Electrokinetic (EK) remediation of a contaminated soil at several Pb concentrations and applied voltages.Journal of Soil Contamination, 5:2(1996)95-120.

Reddy, K. R.; Parupudi, U .S. Removal of chromium, nickel, and cadmium from clays by in-situ electrokinetic remediation.Journal of Soil Contamination, 6:4(1997)349-407.

Acar, Y.B.; Alshawabkeh, A.N. Principles of Electrokinetic Remediation.Environmental Science and Technology, 27:13(1993) 2638-2647.

Baraud, F.; Fourcade, M. C.; Tellier, S.; Astruc, M. Modelling of decontamination rate in an electrokinetic soil processing. International Journal Of Environmental Analytical Chemistry 68:2(1997) 105-121.

Reddy, K. R.; Cameselle, C. Electrochemical Remediation Technologies for Polluted Soils, Sediments and Groundwater.Wiley (2009).

Chung, H.I.; Kang, B.H. Lead removal from contaminated marine clay by electrokinetic soil decontamination. Engineering geology 53:2(1999)139-150.

Gioannis, G.D.; Muntoni, A.; Polettini, A.; Pomi , R. Enhanced electrokinetic treatment of different marine sediments contaminated by heavy metals. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, 43:8,. (2008) 852.

Park, S.-W.; Lee,J.-Y.; yang, J.-S.; Kim, K.-J.; Baek, K. Electrokinetic remediation of contaminated soil with waste –lubricant oils and zinc. Journal of Hazardous Materials,169 (1-3)(2009) 1168-1172.

Kim, K.-J.; Kim, D.-H.; Yoo, J.-C.; Baek,K. Electrokinetic extraction of heavy metals from dredged marine sediment. Separation and Purification Technology, 79:2(2011)164–169.

Lageman, R. Full Scale Applications of EletroKinetic Remediation Technology. In: SEKRET & Co. Workshop. Innovazione in Toscana sul trattamento dei sedimenti di dragaggio. Livorno, Italy, 14/04/2015.

Reddy, K. R.; Saichek, R.E.; Maturi, K.; Ala, P. Effects of Soil Moisture and Heavy Metal Concentrations on Electrokinetic Remediation. Indian Geotechnical Journal,32 :2(2002) 258-288.

Hervé Dumez, H. Méthodologie de la recherche qualitative,Vuibert,2e Édition,Paris(2015).

Giordano, Y.Conduire un projet de recherche. Une perspective qualitative. Management et SociétéEds.(2003).

Tepeli, E. Processus formalisé et systémique de management des risques par des projets de construction complexes et stratégiques. Génie civil. Thèse de doctorat, Université de Bordeaux, France(2014).

Del Cano, A.; La Cruz, P. Integrated Methodology for Project Risk Management. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 128: 6(2002) 473-48.

LeRoy, W. J. Dictionary of Project Management Terms, Third Edition. ESI International (2011).

Norme ISO 31000: Risk management – Guidelines (2018).

Pinto J, Project Management Achieving Competitive Advantage, Pearson Education International. (2007).

Staccini, P.; Quaranta, J-F. (2007). Modéliser les processus de soins pour décrire les activités et mieux identifier les risques. Risques & Qualité; IV : 3 (2007) 143-151.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Copyright UMMB © 2020 University M'hamed Bougara - Boumerdes. Independance AV., Boumerdes, 35000 Algeria, Tel/Fax: +213 24 91 14 98/ +213 2491-29-51